NEWSLETTER Number Three June 1998

NEWSLETTER Number Three June 1998




     Dear Colleagues, Dear Friends 

I'm very honoured at being installed as the new President of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry.  I would like to thank the Board members and all the councillors and their backing groups for their support and their confidence in me.  

As the incoming President, I'm very grateful to the past President with whom I worked together on the Board  for the past eight yeras.  Constantine Oulis isn't my brother yet, but he became almost family.  The more we argued recently by electronic mail the closer became our friendship.  Thank you Constantine.  The past President pointed out at the assembly during the past Congress that the Academy gave him more than he put in; I feel this was too 'modest' of him.  I know that a lot of energy was put in the Academy by initiating a lot of ideas and novelties. As he wrote to the Councillors in your latest letter, the reluctance to finish things holds the Academy back. This will be the greatest challenge for me in running the Academy.

I will take care of the pending task, assuring you that we will finalise several initiatives already begun.  Moreover, I'm sure that you will still put a lot of energy into the Academy.  I will try to have a more regular contact with all Councillors as was requested in the most recent questionnaire they were sent, but, on the other hand, I strongly count on all Councillors.  There is a need for active participation and I will develop new initiatives in due course to reach that goal. In the next two years we have to focus on several other major goals of which the recognition of the Speciality is the most important.

I would like to finish this first presidential message by thanking Professor Giuliano Falcolini for organising the 4th EAPD Congress.  As chairman of the Scientific Committee, we worked very closely and succeeded to finalise a high quality scientific programme.  Another thanks to Doctors Campus and Lumbau, Mr and Mrs invisible ... I know it was a nightmare.  It will remain a mystery to me how the Organising Committee succeeded in printing the abstract book and the programme book.  Giuliano. - On the one hand you didn't receive the expected number of attendees, on the other hand I feel most of us agree that the scientific content was very good and this is always the first and most important goal of any congress.  The unfortunate mistake you made was the absence of the sun but maybe you didn't find enough sponsorship for that.

Giuliano, I know you worked very hard for this congress and the scientific content will forever be in the libraries thanks to your new Italian Journal of Paediatric Dentistry for which I would like to congratulate you very much.

My dear friends, we will leave Sardinia now. We are looking forward to Bergen (Norway) in 2000. We move from the rain to .... more rain?

I'm really looking forward to working with MAGNE RAADAL the next Congress Organiser and President-Elect during the next two years.  It will be my pleasure to lead this Academy up to its 5th Congress and to its 10th anniversary which we should celebrate in BERGEN.

Dear fiends, let us leave with a warm feeling for the Academy and a strong belief in the Board and Council in their attempt to make Paediatric Dentistry a strong specialiy in Europe.

(From the new President's address at the closing ceremony).


Porto Cervo, Sardinia
Luc C Martens






Dear Colleagues and members of our Academy, dear friends, 

I am very pleased as President, and on behalf of the Board and the Council to welcome you to this Biennial General Assembly of our Academy.

Traditionally with the end of our Biennial Congress. we reach the end of our two-year Academy assignment periods.  It is time therefore, to look at what we have accomplished.  There were three areas of focus planning and action that defined the goals of my Presidency:

1.     The forwarding and, if possible, completion of the Pending Tasks.

2.     The internal re-evaluation and strengthening of our infrastructure.

3.     Increased and more effective communication with the public and our members.


Proposals for each issue were prepared and submitted to the Executive Committee.  After many hours of preparation and collaboration among the Executive members, all these important issues for the existence - better organisation - and effective action of our Academy were issued and forwarded to the Council for their approval.  

Among our first priorities were the restructuring of the Constitution to comply with the EU standards, and the development of the first drafts of the accreditation and quality assurance standards.  All three proposals were completed and distributed thanks to the hard work of the Coordinators: Professors Hoskuldsson, Dahloff and Dr. Edkman, and the members of the Constitution. Accreditation and Quality Assurance committees respectively.  

We are deeply indebted to all for their marvellous work and we will be delighted to have the coordinators of these committees present all these proposals to the General Assembly expecting your final approval.  As the Academy has been growing there has been an increasing need to identify our members and the development of a membership card and a certificate was necessary.  Further to the above, and in order to strengthen and develop our functioning, I thought that we needed to have some standards to go by and the Council charged me to proceed with the development of a document on the Standing Orders and policies of our Academy, which I prepared in collaboration with Professor Martens.  On the other hand, if the EAPD wants to meet the future and evolve, the link to the Internet is the solution.  In collaboration with Professor Raadal, we were assigned to prepare a proposal on how the Academy can develop a WWW Page on the Internet.  Both proposals are also completed waiting for discussion, possible changes and final approval. 

As for the "speciality recognition" a strategic plan was proposed in one of our Newsletter's. The Council had appointed Professor Koch, Professor Martens, and myself to deal with this.  The fortunate evolution was the fact that I was appointed representative of the Education level from my country to this EU Advisor Committee and we could follow the plan better, in association with the other members.  The unfortunate coincidence, though, (because of which we were not able to proceed) was the decision of the authorities of Brussels to seize for a while the action and the works of the Advisory Committee (the rationale behind this decision was the need to reorganise and establish it on a new basis with fewer people. more productive and less expensive).  Therefore, until we have the new synthesis of the Advisory Committee, we should re-evaluate and probably change the course of our actions accordingly. 

Of course. this was made possible after we managed to find the way and covering all the expenses of our members, to organise two interim meetings. One for the Executive and one for the Council  both held in Athens during 1997.  It could be a big omission if I did not refer to the Scientific success of the Workshop on the "Fluoride use and dosage for children" which we had in Athens, the product of which is the document we approved and the Academy has the first Oral Health Policy to go by.  Taking advantage of this opportunity, I would like to thank Proctor & Gamble Corporation for their generous financial contribution.

Dear friends, as an overall estimation of the two year period, I think that thanks to the hard work of all our dedicated members, whether they were in the different working committees or in the Council, we managed to have a very busy and productive period.  We proceeded our Academy's business further and closer to the goals set forth, I think very successfully.

Besides, the evaluation of the Academy's work for these two years, allow me in my talk this afternoon to share with you some reflections. Reflections that were created on me during these two years on the way we are working as an Academy and on how we should try to work in the future.  Allow me here, my colleagues, to make a philosophical parenthesis by pointing out that if we want to succeed in the goals we have set it is very critical to realise that our personal and individual disciplines are much less important than our common commitments and our common vision.  We comprise a multinational group with diverse personal and national ways of thinking and acting.  It will take a long time, if ever, before we find the same way of acting based on individual disciplines.  

It is conceivable that homogeneity is impossible and unwanted.  We must remember, though, that convergence is the key to success and that this can only be accomplished if we develop such common disciplines and orders that each one of us will follow avoiding divergence which might lead to unwanted pathways for all of us.  We share values on which we should base our relationship for the benefit of our Academy.  The values endure and empower the membership, inspite of changing leadership, to move forward.

Our Academy will exist and go on because of you, the members.  As members you should shape and convene our Academy's actions.  Through participation.  In every level and activities of our Academy.  Through your activity, your ideas your forge the way and influence what gets done and what direction the Academy should go.  As Executives, we ought to listen to all of you, either as individuals or representatives of your National group to what you have to suggest in order to better understand how we could, as an Academy, better serve our profession and our speciality.  Leadership should have a vision, but this goes hand in hand with relationship.  

As I conclude my remarks today, I would like to thank two very special leaders who came before me in this office.  The past Presidents Professor Martin Curzon and Professor Goran Koch.  Both of you served as mentors and guides in different, but equally important ways for me.  I was taught a lot from you through observation and modelling, and I thank you for your leadership.  Becoming a President afler you was a frightening but challenging experience about which I do not want to remember the beginning, when a frightening feeling and a question was constantly triggering my mind.  How and what can I do more or equally to what they did. Now, graciously I am going to recall this moment of the ending of my Presidency, that everything is over and I have to relax.  On how I did it and whether I succeeded to fulfil the needs of our Academy and the demands of my Presidency, is something that our members will decide evaluating my efforts and results of these two year's work.  

As an overall estimation, I think that we managed to complete a considerable number of issues I promised at the beginning of my Presidency, while others have come closer to completion.  The close collaboration and the hard work of the Board, the Committee members and the Councillors made everything possible. 

Taking this opportunity I would like to express my sincere thanks to all of you and each one separately, whether you were in the Board, in the Council or in different committees for your participation, collaboration and support that you gave me during these two years.  On behalf of the Board I also have to thank the participants for their valuable contributions.  I think that we also have to be deeply indebted to Professor Falcolini for the good work and all of his efforts to make a successful congress.  There are always minor shortcomings and he could not do anything with the weather! 

Finally, dear colleagues I will close by having something to say to our successors and the new people in my own working committees by quoting something that showed me the way these last two years.  "Put your heart in your dream and no desire is too extreme", which goes together with an old saying: "More is accomplished by the person with desire".   I am sure that the Academy passes into good and competent hands.   I wish good luck to our new President Professor Luc Martens and a very productive and flourishing Presidency.  Thank you for your trust in me. Thank you for your support.

 Constantine Oulis





2nd- 5th May 1998
Porto Cervo   Sardinia     Italy


Our 4th  Congress took place in the wonderful setting of Porto Cervo.  Most of the 150 delegates arrived on Friday 1st  May and were accommodated in one of three super hotels.   The Congress venue was the Conference Centre adjacent to the Tennis Club and close by to the Hotel Cervo.  On Saturday there were two pre-Congress Courses on: 1) oral implants in young children (sponsored by Nobel Biocare) and 2) occlusal guidance in the mixed dentition (sponsored by Sweden & Martina).  There was also a pre-Congress Symposium on nutrition and oral health (sponsored by Ilsi and Mars Incorporated).  All of these pre-Congress events comprised of presentations from speakers from around the world and were very well attended.   Whilst most of the delegates were attending these presentations there was a Council Meeting of the EAPD taking place.  In the evening there was a welcome cocktail in the Conference Centre where old acquaintances were renewed and some new friendships established.  

The Congress officially opened on the Sunday and commenced with a Symposium on the need for a Speciality in Paediatric Dentistry.  This consisted of three excellent presentations starting with the Maxine Pollard Memorial Lecture given by Professor Curzon on "why children?".   This was followed by Professor Koch who talked about the present status of the speciality in Europe and was followed by Professor O'Mullane on the legislation and implementation of the speciality in Europe.  The poster sessions then commenced taking us up to lunchtime.  In the afternoon there were two parallel sessions.  One on the EAPD guidelines on the use of fluoride in children and the second on pulp therapy for permanent teeth given by Professor Fuks.  The oral presentations then commenced.  134 abstracts were submitted of which 127 were accepted and 63 were Oral and 64 were Poster presentations.  The abstracts were presented by delegates from not only within Europe but from every other continent.  

On Monday there was a second Symposium sponsored by Ivocar-Vivadent on early caries detection and prevention given jointly by Dr Kidd, Dr Weerheijm and Dr Twetman.  Professor Makinen spoke on sugar substitutes in Session 3 (sponsored by Sophie Int.).  Two further Sessions, more oral and poster presentations and the EAPD General Assembly saw us through the rest of the day.  In the evening coaches took us all to the Banquet Reception which was held in a traditional Sardinian restaurant.  We sampled a number of Sardinian dishes and had more than a taste of the local wine which flowed copiously!  The banquet was a great social success with Professor Falcolini pre-empting the Eurovision Song Contest by staging the EAPD version.  Every country participated by singing a well known national song.  Some countries only had one representative which meant a solo performance (well done Billy Fenlon from Ireland).  It was clearly a stroke of inspired genius by Professor Falcolini as this event got everyone mixing together and a good time was had by all! 

On Tuesday (the final day) the third Symposium was on blood disorders and oral health followed by the final session on the educational programme of the IAPD (sponsored by Colgate-Palmolive).  After the closing ceremony there was an afternoon Workshop on organising and running postgraduate programmes. 

The Congress was a great success with many interesting scientific presentations.  However, the weather (torrential rain) made it impossible for us to appreciate the true beauty of the area and the pictures of the beautiful beaches on the posters remained untouched by EAPD delegates.  Perhaps on another sunny occasion!  Despite the bad weather the Congress was a great event and our deepest thanks must go to Professor Giuliano Falcolini for all of the hard work he put into the organising and running of the Congress. 

Jack Toumba





Apologies to Professor Olafur Hoskuldsson for ommiting to give him
credit for his article on the EAPD Constitution and Bylelaws which 
appeared in Issue Three of the Newsletter in 1997


Comments on EAPD Constitution and Byelaws


In 1992 in The Netherlands, the General Assembly approved the first Constitution and Byelaws of our Academy.  Since then a number of changes have been proposed.  Some of them have been approved by the General Assembly, others are in the process of approval.   However, during this period some issues regarding the Constitution and Byelaws came up.   One of them is Dr Hansson's comment that our Constitution is too long and complicated and it is probably to our advantage to cut it down.  He also points out that any amendment of a Constitution requires a rather high ration of affirmative votes of rather a large quorum.  

Having a careful look at our Constitution, one realises that it consists of seven articles. The first three articles determine the name, the purpose and the objectives of the Academy and give the definition of Paediatric Dentistry.  They also determine the organisation, including the incorporation of the Academy, the location of the offices and a general statement about membership.  The fourth article determines that the legislative body is the General Assembly, while the administrative body is the Council.  The fifth article refers to the elective officers and the Co-President and makes a general statement concerning the appointive officers.  Finally the sixth article deals with the biennial meeting of the members, while the last one sets up the requirements for the amendments of the Constitution.

Following Dr Hansson's suggestion, a question that comes up is whether an article is redundant or can complicate the function of our Academy so that an elimination or change is advisable.  To answer this question it is safe to say that the Constitution includes general statements and basically defines the legislative body, the administrative body, the elected officers and the Co-president.  In other words the Constitution provides the general framework and the structure which are necessary for the Academy to become an entity.  It is neither too long or too short for this purpose.  It can also be considered simple since no details regarding the function of the governmental bodies and decision-making processes are described.  In addition the articles included may be the minimum requirements for a European court to give a legal entity to our Academy.  Finally it is likely that all these articles can be found in the Constitution of other Scientific organisations.  Concerning the issue of the amendment of the Constitution, two points need special consideration. 

The first one is the quorum, while the second is the ratio of affirmative votes.  Both should include an increased number of members. The underlying rationale is that the Constitution gives our Academy a special prestige by determing the purpose and the objective, the structure as well as the philosophy of the organisation.  Any amendment of the Constitution may change these essential features giving a different face to our Academy.  In this respect therefore the amendment should have a special prestige given by a large quorum and a high ratio of affirmative votes.  Within this framework article VII of our Constitution needs reconsideration. 

Another issue is the incorporation of our Academy by a European Court.  This issue should be addressed as soon as possible, taking into consideration the overall benefit to our organisation by registering the Academy in one of the EU countries.  

A final point is that our Constitution and Byelaws need further clarification.  Reading the (perpetual) draft carefully, some contradictions can be noticed. Also it is essential that the Constitutional Committee should not only have the duty of the proper formulation and the wording of the proposed amendments, but should also have the power to propose changes as well.

Apostole Vanderas
Member of the Constitution Committee
Counsilor of the Greek Branch of EAPD




From 1st of July the UK will be recognising the Specialty of 
Paediatric Dentistry.  This means that, with Sweden, we now 
have the requisite two Countries necessary to push for 
recognition of our Specialty within the EU.

Here's to the Future!


The Evolution of Children's Dentistry in Europe 
Over the Last 200 Years

Marguerite Zimmer

Journal of the History of Dentistry vol 46 No 1 March 1998

 Interest in better child oral health in Europe began during the 19th  Century with programmes of children's dental treatment mostly for the underprivileged, school dental hygiene programmes and school dentists in several countries such as Belgium, Switzerland, France and Germany.  In 1893 organised check-ups in schools in Denmark, Sweden and St Petersburg revealed that 8 to 99% of primary school children had tooth decay. 

Books on subjects such as tooth cleaning techniques, the cariogenicity of sugar, tooth eruption and resorption the development of reimplantation and transplantation of teeth appeared first at that time.  However organised children's dentistry started early in the 20th Century in 1902, when the first European Dental Clinic for Children was opened in Strasbourg by the Danish dentist Ernst Jessen.  Several such clinics then followed in Sweden, Bulgaria, Catalonia, Denmark, Hungary and England.  In 1913, 208 German towns had their own school dental clinic and after 1929 during the German Reich, paediatric dental treatment was made compulsory.  However, German dentists were cut off from international development.  In 1929 dental treatment was introduced to all schools in Hungary.  Free dental treatment for all children was first instituted in 1938 in Sweden and in 1956 in Finland and subsequently in East Germany and Switzerland. 

Regarding the several societies founded for children's dentistry, the first. in 1909. was the Danish Society of Children's Dental Hygiene, then in 1952 the Paedodontic Sociey of Great Britain, which was followed by the British Paedodontic Society in 1962.  In 1966 the Paedodontic Socieny was founded in France and in 1969  The International Association of Dentistry for Children.  

Summary by 
Dr. K. Kavadia




In Greece, until 1858, Dentistry was practised by people without any dental scientific background.  That year, by Royal Decree, some prerequisites were established for practising Dentistry while, up to 1918, dentists were graduates from either two Greek private Dental Schools or from foreign ones.  

In 1918 the first Dental Department of the Medical School was established at the University of Athens with a 3-year undergraduate studies program.  At that time Private Higher Education stopped by law being recognised in Greece and dental education became a state responsibility.  

In 1921, the Dental School of the University of Athens became autonomous with its own professors: however; the  Director of the School had still to be a professor of the Medical School.  At the same time the duration of the undergraduate studies was increased to 4 years until, in 1953, this duration was determined to be 5 years. 

In 1959 a second Dental School was established at the University of Tlaessaloniki (Salonica).  

Finally, in 1970. the Dental School of the University of Athens was made fully independent from the corresponding Medical School.  The development of paediatric dentistry in Greece follows the same pattern as in other western Countries.  Organised dental treatment for children was first offered in needy school children in public clinics financed by various philanthropic societies and by some private practitioners without any speciality qualification.  

The first Greek dental book which makes some reference to children's teeth is one by D. Karakatsanis, the man who had established the first Private Dental School in Athens.  In his book, published in 1984, devotes a separate chapter on the «Oral hygiene» and another on «Advice to the mothers for their children's primary and permanent teeth».  

Also some other important pioneers of Dentistry in Greece had indicated the need for special attention to the normal development of both dentitions and to the special needs of children concerning their oral health.  

Since 1925 several publications and presentations at National Meetings were devoted to the need of instituting the position of the School Dentist but, unfortunately, this idea has not been adopted by the Public Health System up to now.  The first organised dental clinic for school children was established in 1915 in the "Polyclinic" founded by Em. Lampadarius and the "Patriotic League of Greek Women".  The "Patriotic Foundation for the Welfare of Children" establishes, in 1937, its "Stomatologic Clinics for Children".  In these Clinics school children were examined and given preventive information.  The treatment for poor children was free of charge. 

In 1953 existed 12 paediatric dentistry centres in Greece, 10 of which were in Athens, and 4 mobile dental clinics that were donated to Greece by the Canadian Government.  The age of the children treated in the centres was from 2 to 18 years and the sequence of visit twice a year. Since 1953 the preventive program included topical fluoride application in accordance with the method described by Knutson in 1951.  Paediatric Dentistry was first introduced to the Dental School of Athens University in 1956 by J. Elianos, Professor of Operative Dentistry.  In his book on Operative Dentistry, Elianos had devoted 14 pages on the importance and special needs of the primary teeth and the principles of restorative care for children.  He also made obligatory for undergraduate students the restoration of 5 primary teeth. 

In 1979, the successor of Elianos, Professor Z. Mantzavnos widened the scope and curriculum of paedodontics encouraging faculty members with formal training in Paediatric Dentistry in western countries, to teach basic seminars in this subject and to other clinical teaching, covering the whole spectrum of the speciality, in a 4-chair clinic specially designed for children. 

In 1982, by the Law 1268/82 on Higher Education in Greece, Paediatric Dentistry became an independent Department within the Section of Community Dentistry that also includes the Departments of Preventive and Community Dentistry and Orthodontics.  

The undergraduate program of the Department extents over the last 4 semesters of undergraduate studies in Dentistry and contains 38 hours of lectures, 13 hours of seminars. 26 hours of laboratory work and, approximately, 150 hours of clinical work per student.  The Department's clinic has recently been renovated and contains 11 fully equipped chairs of the latest technology.  

In 1991 the Department started a 3 year speciality program designed in accordance with E.A.P D. curriculum guidelines in Paediatric Dentistry and combined with a postgraduate  Diploma in Oral Biology. 

The Department has 5 full-time and 15 part-time members trained in Paediatric Dentistry specialty programs in the USA, Canada and the UK .

The National Health System established by law in 1982, provides, through health centres, dental preventive and restorative care to children up to 18 years of age free of charge.  In the last decade the Social Insurance Foundation (I.K.A.) has developed paediatric dental clinics, where prevention and treatment is provided and other special clinics which provide only preventive care.  In the 3 Children's Hospitals in Athens there are university Paediatric Dentistry Departments and in a "General Hospital" there is a "Centre for Care for special Patients provided under General Anaesthesia".  In the private sector there are approximately 80 paediatric dentists and a few general practitioners limiting their practice to children and of those 58 are practising in Athens.  

When referring to the development of Paediatric Dentist in Greece one should mention the contribution of the Hellenic Society of Dentistry for Children founded by J. Elianos and N. Baltas in 1961.  The Society is a member of the International Association of Dentistry for Children.  The major contribution of the Society in the development of Paediatric Dentistry in Greece is through its Annual National Meetings and its quarterly journal «Paedodontia».  In 1991 two more societies were established.  The Greek Association for the Study of Cleft and Facial Deformities and the Hellenic Association of Dentistry for the Handicapped the latter being a member of the International Association of Dentistry for the Handicapped. 

The future of Paediatric Dentistry in Greece is from now on closely connected with the future development of the speciality in the E.U. through the E.A.P.D. and the Greek participation in the Academy is considered in this Country of primary importance.  For this reason we in the Hellenic Branch of E. A.P.D. are determined to work in unison with the other member Countries towards the recognition of the specialty of Paediatric Dentistry in the E.U. and the achievement of the Academy's goal for high quality of oral health care for children in this Continent.



Prof Liza Papagiannoulis 
Head of Department of Paedriatic Dentistry
School of Dentistry University of Athens





5th  Congress of the


1.    Diagnostic Methods in Paediatric Dentistry 
2.    Monitoring of the Dentition


Further information

 Prof. G Hetzer

tel: +49 351-458 2714 
fax: +49 351-458 5303







9th to12th  September

The Conference  Programme
- Manchester 

 Wed 9th  September                  Teachers of Paediatric Dentistry

 Thurs 10th  September   am        (includes) BSPD Research Prize Presentations

                                           pm        (includes) Clinical case presentations by trainees 

 Fri 11th  September                     TRAUMA
                                                         Dr Frances Andreasen (Copenhagen)

Sat 12th  September                   MODERN MATERIALS
                                                       Dr David Watts (Univ Manchester) 
                                                       Dr Richard Welbury (Newcastle Dent Hosp)
                                                       Dr Kathy Harley (Eastman Dental Hosp)

Contact: Mrs Helen Draper
Oral Health and Development University Dental Hospital
Higher Cambridge Street Manchester M15 6FH ENGLAND

Tel & Fax +44 161 275 6610